4′33″ (pronounced "Four minutes, thirty-three seconds" or just "Four thirty-three" is a three-movement composition by American experimental composer John Cage (1912–1992). It was composed in 1952, for any instrument or combination of instruments, and the score instructs the performer(s) not to play their instrument(s) during the entire duration of the piece throughout the three movements. The piece purports to consist of the sounds of the environment that the listeners hear while it is performed, although it is commonly perceived as "four minutes thirty-three seconds of silence".The title of the piece refers to the total length in minutes and seconds of a given performance, 4′33″ being the total length of the first public performance.

Conceived around 1947–1948, while the composer was working on Sonatas and Interludes,4′33″ became for Cage the epitome of his idea that any sounds may constitute music. It was also a reflection of the influence of Zen Buddhism, which Cage studied since the late 1940s. In a 1982 interview, and on numerous other occasions, Cage stated that 4′33″ was, in his opinion, his most important work The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians describes 4′33″ as Cage's "most famous and controversial creation".



I think this pice is really intriguing. i like the connection with buddhism and Asian philosophy. I think if i you decided to explore the topic of silence this is a mandatory area to research. For instance, Marina Abramovich in one of her performances was also inspire by asian philosophy of stillness and contemplation. She took the whole house in Japanese mountains. She called it dream house, and pick up volunteers to spent some time there dreaming in science.    


Felix Gonzalez Torres

Felix Gonzalez-Torres (November 26, 1957 – January 9, 1996) was an American, Cuban-born, gay visual artist. González-Torres was known for his minimal installations and sculptures in which he used materials such as strings of lightbulbs, clocks, stacks of paper, or packaged hard candies.

The most interesting fact for me in his works is interaction with a viewer. If you look closer on his minimalistic sculptures, you will see that some of them like stack of sheets or a shape made of sweets made for viewer to take a pice of this art out of the gallery. And the gallery that have bought such work should constantly renew it. 

That breaks the stereotype about еру uniqueness of the art and limited edition of art works. And finally it ruins the whole the economy of gallery business. 


The art like an object isn't his subject of exploration. James Turrell works with perception and light. He focuses on the colorful light that is not illuminating the object, but create an a geometrical shape itself. He alters space around the viewer to achieve a curtain perception illusion. Personally speaking, i love the use of color in hie works, it reminds me about an area of alternative medicine that explore the influence of color on the health. I also admire his idea to cut a square in a selling so that the sky could be seen as an artwork. You don't usually pay attention to the beauty of the sky but when it is seen thought a colorful frame it is seen in a new way.  I like that rediscover aspect in his works. 


Olafur Eliasson

During research about Turrell i found another contemporary artist who works with light and space  Olafur Eliasson. He is a Danish-Icelandic artist known for sculptures and large-scale installation art employing elemental materials such as light, water, and air temperature to enhance the viewer’s experience. 


The project’s conception stretches back to the sudden death of Song Dong’s father which drove Xiangyuan into a relentless state of depression and grief; this mourning and sense of immense loss, combined with a childhood set against the backdrop of a cultural revolution, political and social turmoil and natural disasters, Song Dong’s mother began to take the Chinese philosophy of “Wu Jin Qi Yong” (Waste Not), to an impressive extreme. However, “Wu Jin Qi Yong” was not only a way of life specific to Song Dong’s mother; it was a common survival tactic for a whole generation of Chinese, a generation bound by a fear of shortage. 

This installation reminds me of the constantly changing life of a human. All those everyday objects like tooth paste tubes shows that time is passing by. Moreover it communicates the idea of poverty and struggling not only Chinese people from artist childhood but of people around the world nowadays too.


Typographic Links

Typographic Links is a hand-sewn book which maps interesting links and connections throughout the world of typography. Red threads are used as three-dimensional 'hyperlinks' to guide the reader through the pages.

Created in 2007, it was on display at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York in 2011 as part of the Talk To Me exhibition.

It would be interesting to hold such an objects in my hands. I wonder how it reads. The idea behind hat piece is visualizing links which are actually imaginary pathways, that existed only in our mind or in the internet intangibles space. The ability to see and even touch something traditionally invisible attracts viewer.


After some random research based on a project presentation i decided to research more about application of graphic design in 3 dimensions. I was impressed by Olafur Eliasson  and James Turrell work with a color and space. They don't create a picture, they make a viewer a part of a picture. 


Zim&Zou, a French studio based in Nancy that explores different fields including paper sculpture, installation, graphic design, illustration. Both aged 25, they studied graphic design during 3 years in an artschool. Rather than composing images on a computer, they prefer creating real objects with paper and taking photos out of them.

Nowadays this term covers a broad range of themes: pop groups’ images, brand icons, advertising, television, slang, fashion and so on. This means that mass production is involved in the creation of pop culture. However, this often becomes a powerful, political and diplomatic source of influence. There are lots of questions appeared. For example: is it a self-sustaining structure or a carefully planned system of influence on society? How is it differs from Folk and high culture? 

I’ll start my research from pop culture images around me.



The characters of popular cartoons become a popular culture. There is a example using character image instead of photo. Also people nowadays like decorating their staff with stickers of trinkets with cartoons images like Simpsons, Mumi trolls, alice in wonderland  and other disney characters. Why they are so successful? Im going to find some scientific researches about it.


Brand icons like Coca-Cola, Fanta, chupa chups are extremely famous and used in decoration, and design a lot. Over the time the become more than just an image but a symbol of soften life style - fancy, young and free.


about the book (John Storey)

These book by John Storey was a good choice to start researching about the popular culture and the culture in general because it provides necessary historical background and terminology that you will need for the further research. I’ve chosen the most interesting extract from the book and present it here. For example, that was a very interesting fact for me that the restrictions between popular and high culture are gradually becoming more blurry. To illustrate this fact the author is taking about the concerts of classical music. It is no longer a leisure only for upper class rich people. And the classic opera songs by Luciano Pavarotti are placed in music charts alongside with popular music compositions.

Moreover this book clarifying term of ideology and shows how it is woven in culture. USSR  is the most obvious example of the ideology of the world that is made for the middle class workers, the world were nearly everything is collective to avoid any injustice. The main motto of that time was “ piece, work, may”. At that time all soviet culture was made to support this ideology: cinema, posters literature ets. 

I also like the quote that culture is a collective dream world. I think that it is  the real nature of the culture. All literature, theatre, television contain a curtain proportion of intreating content alongside with reflecting the situating in the world or trying to solve controversial issues.


Hight - pop

Pop culture -« fail to meet the required standards to qualify as a high culture»

Hight culture -«difficult» culture - guarantees the exclusivity of its audience

  pop culture - mass production

hight - individual act of creation

committal success devalued a cultural item

Shakespeare is now seen as the epitome of hight culture, yet his works were popular culture for his contemporaries

facts and thought  about pop

 pop culture is haplessly commercial culture. mass produced foe mass consumption

culture consumed with brain-numbed passivity

mass culture was «invented» in US, NY

pop culture - collective dream word, «escape from our utopian selves» Richard Maltby

 if its the crime of pop culture that it has taken our dreams and packaged them and sold them back to us, is is also the achievement of pop culture that it has brought us more and more varied dreams that we could otherwise even have known. R.M.

 ideology machine which reproduces the dominant ideology 

 imposed on ‘the people’ above   of  the culture of the people?

the people vs power block

all culture is commercial 

urbanisation, industrialisation - Britain the first county to produce popular culture

before this Britain has common culture and elite culture 

industrialisation changed relationship between employees and employers

 residential separation of classes


Firstly, these images depict beauty standards of that time. Nowadays this looks considered as something authentic and retro. But it was a pop culture at in the past.

 " Secondly, this is advertisement of  «Wills’s» cigarettes. Nowadays the image of smoking woman is quite common.  But when i saw these feminine portraits, that looks like an oil painting, and mention cigarette in their hards i was shocked. A great example of the way how advertising posters shapes the attitude of public. "

That how I thought when I saw this poster at first. But after research in this area,  I realised that in the time when these poster were produced, people were absolutely unaware of the dangers of smoking. Moreover they thought that it was good for health. The smoking woman started to appear on television since approximately 60s, this image was presented as something normal  and elegant. Then alongside with scientific researches in this area, smoking gradually became socially unacceptable. Thus social advertising against smoking emerged.  So that could be an example of the flexibility of advertising industry, that is changing with society and reflects the present condition of it.


That was fascinating to travel through the «time tunnel» and to see how design approaches were changing gradually over the time. At the latest examples manufacturer and designers started to consider peoples psychology and patters of choice and purchase much more. They not a product itself but the lifestyle.


 There was replicas of tickets for The Beatles’s concert, Word war flyers, postcards and maps from seaside holidays of 70s and so on. When you open such kit you feel yourself like a time traveler. Such paper staff initially communicate the atmosphere of time, and gives you a sense of the era. 


I dint expect that they have a lot in common:

-neither artist works alone. Relied on large systems of production.

-developing mass-production technologies

-have a easily recognisable source if inspiration: medieval legends and nature/ Hollywood celebrities and consumerism.

-share «interest in repetition»

-keen on popularise art

-calibrated with the most talented artists of their day


Both of them experimented with repetition of the same image in different colours.

Firstly, that allows to see the same image from different points of wives . Secondly, that is a consequence of mass production.Where you can adjust the same image for the various use. 


Warhol was the firs artist who  consider consumerism and as an art. He shifted from an abstract art  to depiction of every-day, trivial and sometimes even platitude objects like this soup can of coca-cola bottle. He also incorporate principe of mass-production in his work.  He had a whole group pf people producing art works from his designs. That mens that art is no longer a unique masterpiece. 



I found this mark making technique during my research. I am going to try it, because it is corresponds with Warhol and Morris’s techniques. Both of them used print making a lot. Morris used wooden bricks to make his patterns. That has a lot in common withs the use of existing surfaces like lemon to get an image.


Artworks in the gallery were divided according to the areas of influence of pop on human. I will use the same division in my information file.


Tsang Kin-Wah, 2003, Interior, silkscreen wallpaper


«Pop Art looked closely at the way we live, focussing on the man-made environment and mass-produced artefacts within it.» claims Saatchi Gallery curator. I agree.

For example, this wall-paper reminds me about hidden subtext of lots of media content nowadays and about dual nature of human nature too. From a distance a viewer could only see a nice pattern.It would be enough for some careless person which would bye such wall paper. But it you come closer and take a close look to the pattern, you will realise that it is made of swear words. I think that illustrates how we bye products sometimes. Appealing packaging and celebrity endorsement is enough to attract people. The real quality of the product is not so important.


The Circle, The square and the Triangle. theory

In the gallery i came across a very intriguing work of Vitaly Komar & Alexander Melamid. That is made in a form of promotion of the decor items stable for everyone: The Circle, The square and the Triangle. The idea is not clear enough until you read the description. But after reading you realise that the is massive research being this simple pice, even the size of figures has an explanation.  All figures were made of blank white canvas. This 3 figures represents vitally important parts of human : «head, trunk, sex» I found this visual language appealing, but i disagree with the white colour. Human nature is changing constantly and never stays blank. However, i understand the idea behind the white colour: suable for everyone. These objects also reminds me about a dystopian novel by Yevgeny Zamyatin «We», where everybody had the same living space: nothing superfluous, everything simple and stable for all. 


He An" i am curious Yellow I am curious Blue"


This is the direct continue of Pop art tradition: to take something out of the context of everyday life and place it in the gallery to change the meaning of the object. I found fascinating how by looking at the distorted piece of text that looks like a shop sigh you instantly think about a huge disaster, a city destroyed with nature disaster of war, or  even the of end of civilisation. That means that advertising became not only the symbol of consumerism and vices of society, but also the symbol of life and wellness.


leonid sokov, two profiles (Stalin and Marilyn) 1989

Two Profiles


That image is a great illustration of the differences between mass cultures among countries, political regimes, and religions.  Foe example celebrities and public people don't act the same in Muslim countries and in Western countries.  Globalisation is vanishing these differences gradually, but thy still exist. For me this image could also be a symbol  of controversial nature of pop culture. Some people claim that it is low quality and vulgar, but it is exists and lots of people appreciate it, because of fun it creates.


Media Virus

My project is about mass culture and mass media allows it’s  to exist and grow rapidly.  So I decided to research about media. I found lots of thought provoking information in this book. The author explains patterns of occurrence of popular ideas in society. The author calls these ideas - “mems”. He is talking about the structure and nature of such ideas. According to the theory of author there are natural mems and carefully designed mems. Those ideas contain of scandalous and catchy outer layer that capture peoples attention. But in the core that is hidden at the beginning could contain absolutely different and dangerous for the existing system ideas.

This hidden idea ofter are much more dangerous that the open propaganda. May be caches of this the Beatles were prohibited in USSR. On the outer side their music didn't contain any thing agains communism. But the songs convey the feeling of freedom. And that desire and foreboding of freedom was really dangerous for the existing social structure in USSR.

Also, he claims that “infosphere”(electronic communication and networking as a whole) acts like a nature force: according to the laws of chaotic system. He features these laws. For instance the law of “self-similarity”. You can see on TV that someone is watching TV. This system promoting itself like this. The show that has something about “infosphere” should achieve commercial susses. There is worth mentioning, that politicians and even the presidential candidates sometimes use those scandals or already existed ideas to manipulate the feelings and the attitude of people. 

For example the scandal around William Horton( American convicted felon) was used during electioneering by George bush to undermine the position of Dukakis.

 That was successful at the beginning. But then the second meaning of this “mem” appeared. Horton was black and his victims was white, that fact caused a huge public reaction and undermine the authority of Bush. That is the great example of double-decker ideas. The manipulation of such ideas  could lead to unpredictable consequences.



I found prints produced by Heretic studio in the «Material» shop. There is no doubt that screen prints should be seen not at the computer screen, because it was a completely different feeling to hold an actual print. Firstly, I was stroke with the colours of their works. The colours are sometimes extremely bright  but they always harmonise with each other. Secondly, I like the way they combine illustration and screen print. Their shapes are not to abstract and not to realistic and obvious. This balance is very important for me. Finally, the way that produced gradient surfaces is worth mentioning. «Spectral Nation» print is a great example of such works. The colours are so bright and radiant that you don't need to see anything else on this print except the colour that forms a very simple shape. The orange line at the junction of colours works as a separate geometric shape here. Whereas, for the magazine covers and some posters quite complicated shapes, photographic images and letters are used.


In 2009 Clare completed an MA in Multi-disiciplinary printmaking at the University of the West of England, which saw her work develop into the production of limited edition prints and ceramic pieces.Having grown up in the South West of England, the inspiration for Clare’s work comes from the buildings that surrounded her and nostalgic reminisces of places and items of interest. Within each image, design, pattern and colour plays an important part, adding depth and decoration to build an aesthetically pleasing overall effect.

Clare currently resides in London where she continues to be influenced by her everyday environment.


These prints were quite unusual for me because I used to percept screen print as a process of simplifying the shape by the flat colour. But her screen printed illustrations are so detailed. Even the blue colour of sky is not a smooth surface. It is made of tiny shapes that from the pockmarked surface. These images could also work well as illustrations, but screen print technique, especially there way of making sky surfaces  adds some kind of mystery and special atmosphere to the landscape.


linocut Prints

Gail Brodholt VIDEO


Gail Brodholt usually finds her inspiration on a journeys. That reminds me about Ferrocarili project. But Gail depicts her perception of well known places, instead of entering a new environment. Despite the fact that her parents are immigrants, she was born in London. So the london underground and urban landscapes are very familiar and to her. There are often people on her prints but they are not the main characters. You see them as a part of environment. 

I found her work printed as postcard in a bookshop. The most exiting fact for me about it was the fact that it looks like a painting. Divers colour pallet and complicated shapes and plenty of details creates this effect.


Anthony Burrill VIDEO

"Anthony Burrill is one of the most distinctive voices in contemporary graphic design, known for his thought-provoking posters, printed traditionally in letterpress. He has never worked for another design firm, and his first studio was at home — at his kitchen table."


Q: Could you tell me the story about the lady at Sainsbury’s who inspired your poster, “Work hard and be nice to people”? How did you come up with this poster?

I was just in the supermarket where I always go, and that lady was in the queue and said the secret to a happy life: Work hard and be nice to people. And it was just one of those phrases. You know, I try to remember things that people say that have a nice ring to them, nice honesty, really. It was one of the things that, at the time, I didn’t realize would be that popular.




-technique of printing designs from planks of wood incised parallel to the vertical axis of the wood’s grain. It is one of the oldest methods of making prints from a relief surface, having been used in China to decorate textiles since the 5th century ad. In Europe, printing from wood blocks on textiles was known from the early 14th century, but it had little development until paper began to be manufactured in France and Germany at the end of the 14th century. Cuts with heavy outline and little shading, as the “Christ Before Herod” (British Museum), may date from 1400. Religious images and playing cards were first made from wood blocks in the early 15th century, and the development of printing from movable type led to widespread use of woodcut illustrations in the Netherlands and in Italy. With the 16th century, black-line woodcut reached its greatest perfection with Albrecht Dürer and his followers Lucas Cranach and Hans Holbein.

The woodcut process was widely used for popular illustrations in the 17th century, but no major artist employed it. In the early 19th century it was replaced by wood engraving, which reproduced paintings and sculpture more easily and accurately than did woodcuts. Woodcut became an important medium to the German Expressionists, who, inspired by the vitality of medieval woodcuts, gouged and roughly hewed the wood to achieve a brutal effect.

Woodcuts also play an important role in the history of Japanese art. During the 17th century, a style of genre art called ukiyo-e gained prominence in Japan. Woodcuts served as a convenient and practical way of filling the large demand for inexpensive ukiyo-e pictures. The creation of the ukiyo-e woodcut is attributed to Hishikawa Moronobu (c. 1618–c. 1694), whose designs for illustrations of popular literature were immediately successful.



The monoprint is a form of printmaking where the image can only be made once, unlike most printmaking which allows for multiple originals.

An impression is printed from a reprintable block, such as an etched plate or woodblock, but in such a way that only one of its kind exists, for example by incorporating unique hand-colouring or callage.


The term can also refer to  etchings which are inked and wiped in an expressive, not precisely repeatable manner; to prints made from a variety of printing elements that change from one impression to the next; or to prints that are painted or otherwise reworked by hand either before or after printing.


The beauty of monoprinting lies in its spontaneity and its allowance for combinations of printmaking, painting and drawing media.




Those 5 techniques allows to get a printed image with golden foil instead of ink. I might need golden monograms and text if it will work with luxury packaging.

FOIL TECHNIQUE #1: Foil With Stamps

FOIL TECHNIQUE #2: Foil With Dies

FOIL TECHNIQUE #3: Foil With Tape

FOIL TECHNIQUE #4: Foil With Stencils

FOIL TECHNIQUE #5: Foil With Print Outs




I am going to make packaging for nothing to focus entirely on the power of  packaging. So I researched about existing examples of the packaging for strange or invisible things. I really like the idea of Danish design Centre to materialise feelings that we cant sometimes identify by ourselves of afraid to talk about them. My literature teacher told me that if you don't know the word for the feeling you can’t feel it. Moreover those cans looks appealing. I like the simple and minimalistic approach. 

I think that «Artist’s shit» by Piero Manzoni were made to shock and provoke people. He achieved this goal and was even managed to sell the «artist’s shit».

Cants with character by Nari Ward are examples of the act of packaging to draws attending to the topic. When you package something you always want people to see it, and pay attention.


 Nari Ward "Canned Smiles"

Referencing Piero Manzoni's "Artist Shit" project, Nari Ward enclosed his daughter, son and own smiles, hence "canning" the cliche of the happy Jamaican and African American minstrel character. The label "Made in Jamaica/Made in America" refers to the artist's double identity and to the cultural process of classification of people according to their origin. His daughter and son smiled into the "Black Smiles" cans while he smiled into the "Jamaican Smiles" cans. A seemingly absurd gesture underscores the sometimes unreasonable regard we have towards categorising racial identity.

Nari Ward "Canned Smiles"

___My own writhing is highlighted with black colour. 

___The information that is taken from books, intermittent  and other souses is written with grey colour.


In 1951, Cage visited the anechoic chamber at Harvard University. An anechoic chamber is a room designed in such a way that the walls, ceiling and floor absorb all sounds made in the room, rather than reflecting them as echoes. Such a chamber is also externally sound-proofed. Cage entered the chamber expecting to hear silence, but he wrote later, "I heard two sounds, one high and one low. When I described them to the engineer in charge, he informed me that the high one was my nervous system in operation, the low one my blood in circulation."Cage had gone to a place where he expected total silence, and yet heard sound. "Until I die there will be sounds. And they will continue following my death. One need not fear about the future of music."The realization as he saw it of the impossibility of silence led to the composition of 4′33″.

The Impossibility of complete silence is  an interesting aspect too. Even if you are trying to work with silence, you have to consider that fact that it is actually impossible because your body itself make sounds. For example if you are grasped with mortal fear the loudest sound that you hear is your heartbeat. And any where you go songs always surround you, but as we are used to them we don't pay attention to them. It is not disturbing at all. That means that the absolute silence is actually something abnormal.






Since the 1960s, James Turrell has created an expansive body of work that offers profound revelations about perception and the materiality of light. With their refined formal language and quiet, almost reverential atmospheres, his installations celebrate the optical and emotional effects of luminosity.

Turrell emerged as one of the foremost artists associated with what is known as the Light and Space movement, which began in Southern California in the mid-1960s. Building on his early research into sensory deprivation (particularly theGanzfeld effect, in which viewers
experience disorienting, unmodulated fields of color), his art encourages a state of reflexive vision that he calls “seeing yourself seeing,” wherein we become aware of the function of our own senses and of light as a tangible substance. These perceptual concerns are coupled with a deep commitment to the natural world and an interest in orienting his work around celestial events.


There is one more work dedicated to light and sculptural shapes in a space.  Those cubes looks grate because of the use of light and water. That sculpture have absolutely unearthly alien look because it is not the usual way how we the water. I like how he alter the image of waterfall : the water It falling from giant cubes.



I like how he explains the waterfall project. It is not about just putting nature in a city. The water fall gives the city a sense of dimension and time measurement. And also the idea that art creates public space if you fell yourself a part of the space and an artwork is worth mentioning.


song dong - "waste not "

Waste Not was first displayed in Beijing at the Beijing Tokyo Art Projects in 2005. As of 2012, it has been shown at eight museums and galleries including the Barbican Centre, London; The exhibit consists of thousands of domestic objects such as toothpaste tubes, bowls, toys, bottle tops, crockery, cutlery, food containers and ballpoint pens, arranged in neat rows or piles.They are ordered purely by use and type rather than by colour, shape of texture, and are identically spaced from their neighbours; they have no inherent aesthetic value.The exhibit is curated by Song Dong, his wife and fellow artist Yin Xiuzhen and his sister Song Hui. It takes its name from the Chinese adage wù jìn qí yòng (物尽其用), translated roughly as "waste not, want not" but more literally as "anything that can be somehow of use, should be used as much as possible".


1972. Walking into the Mel Bochner show at Marc Selwyn Fine Art in Los Angeles is a little like entering an observatory, but you are looking down instead of up at the sky. On the concrete floor are simple chalk marks, drawings of circles and lines and lists of numbers. Strategically placed among them, punctuating the shapes and charts, are large chunks of richly colored glass that might be emeralds, rubies and sapphires glistening in the reflected light like stars. Minimal? You bet, yet memorably and unpredictably uplifting nonetheless. The title of the show and the story behind it add to the intrigue. Called “Theory of Sculpture: Fontana’s Light,” the pieces extend the visual language of the influential Italian artist Lucio Fontana, who worked with this same broken glass in the 1950s and ‘60s.

 I saw this work at the FRIZE London exhibition. The pieces of glass lay on the floor in various order, with the use of numbers and lines. I like the use of color: bright small flashy pieces on a plain gray surface. Despite the fact that order associated with something  geometrical and tidy, all chalk marks look hand drawn and a little bit messy, that contributes to the charm of an art piece.



I think that works of this team represents the idea of space. Zim&Zou work with paper and graphic images transformed into a form with 3D sculpture. They plan carefully and create a whole pice of world and than photograph it, receiving a flat illustration as an outcome. I found this transformation really interesting, how 2D become 3D and backwards.


Popular culture (or pop culture) is the entirety of ideasperspectivesattitudesmemes, images, and other phenomena that are within the mainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid 20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st century. Heavily influenced by mass media, this collection of ideas permeates the everyday lives of the society.

The term "popular culture" was coined in the 19th century or earlier.Traditionally, popular culture was associated with poor education and the lower classes, as opposed to the "official culture" and higher education of the upper classes.


The images of flags and main sights of famous countries like UK of France often become well-known and widely speed images from mass production.


There are some quotes from the book that i consider interesting. 

The author presents definitions of culture and ideology that clarified my  understanding of the whole collocation «popular culture».

Then is was necessary for me to see the difference between different types of cultures: folk, hight, underground and popular. 

Finally, i found some examples of commercial use of culture and  of famous people using mass media to rich their goals.




1-« a general process of intellectual, spiritual and aesthetic development.»  Roymond Williams

2« a particular way of life, whether of a people, a period of a group.»

3 «the works and practices of intellectual and especially artistic activity»


«some cultural texts and practices present distorted images of reality»

«presents partial truths of the whole truth»


draw attention to the way in which texts (television fiction, pop songs, novels, feature films etc.) always presents a particular image of the world.

Pop culture a site where «collective social understanding are created». It is engaged in «the politics of signification», the attempt to win readers to particular ways of seeing  the world.

«well-liked by many people» - approval of many people (sales of books, attendance of concerts)

«inferior kings of work»

work deliberately setting out win favour of people»

culture actually made by people for themselves»



I like the idea of the literal interpretation of a phrase. This tiny object was called «Photographs of the Royal Family in a Nutshell». I think that the idea was really creative and it should be pleasing to hold this object in hands. Sometimes tiny size attract more attention than big poster.


Another example of «selling lifestyle» - «Be Sociable - Have a Pepsi». This advertising slogan for Pepsi works successfully even up to the present day.


Why people start to smoke They don’t even know how how it feels to smoke. But they start to do it, especially at the yang age because of the style and image it creates. That is also a reason of great success of Marlboro  cigarettes advertising created by David Ogilvy. They became the symbol of freedom and power. The image of cowboy is the best illustration of that life style. Such posters communicate a message « Be a cool guy. Smoke Marlboro.» 

Back in time, Cigarette packaging was designed mainly for noblemen and rich people. The imagery on the box is the best illustration of this. 

To sum it up, we usually bye product not because of its properties, but because of the style it establish. 


A fascinating find from me was Andy Warhol’s Times capsules. This « reveal Warhol to be an obsessive documenter and collector the world around him» This idea of collecting sighs reminds me about Song Dong’s Waste not and Replicas kit from the museum. This idea of ordering and storing things appeals me, because I am and some of my friends use to collect all the tickets, postcards, letters and other meaningful papers. Why do we did it? Because when you look at these staff over the time, you can «travel in time» and remember feelings, thoughts and emotions that start to vanish. It is like a visual diary. People afraid to forget meaningful moneys, afraid to be forgotten. So all aft us collecting some thing: photos, post cards, bills and so on.

" Kine explains, the time capsules came about at the suggestion of one of Warhol's assistants, as the artist was preparing to relocate his studio. Rather than view the boxing up of his possessions as an unnecessary chore, the staff suggested Andy consider that packing away was an artwork itself."

vitaly komar&alexander melamid

The was a whole wall covered with red leaflets -a contract for the sale of the soul, of to be precise to lease it for a period of 5 years for the sum of….$. The idea of selling soul is old as the hills. However the artists was not trying to present it as something new. They use image of a snake with an apple as a bible reference. The new way to display an old idea caught my attention. They present it in a form of a contract, so common thing nowadays. Lots of celebrities sighed those with promoting companies. They sell their time and talent. Why don't we sell souls?


Circle, square, triangle

He An" i am curious Yellow I am curious Blue", 2011

Alexander Kosolapov MALEVICH - BLACK SQUARE

Alexander Kosolapov MALEVICH - BLACK SQUARE


This work interesting for me because everybody initially recognise Marlboro packaging only by looking at red triangles, black square and white tex. This image is very abstract and the elements and text are altered, but the reference is still clear. That is the power of advertising. However, would every human understand it? The answer is no. Only the one who saw the packaging before. That means the person should belong to a certain time period and have a background to understand the meaning. It is the same with for example with still life painting?



I use this technique to make a pattern for a poster. I want to find a process that wold be as uncontrolled and spontaneous as possible. Finally it  found «soap and milk painting»  I can create  the colourful pattern trough pouring food colour and dish soap in milk. That technique allows to make bright and self-formed streaks of paint. I found it on web-site for fun science experiments for children, but it will looks great and could  be used in my work.



This screen print forms part of a series of prints produced by Heretic in 2013. The prints were part of a self initiated project titled Spectral Nation which was first exhibited at The Conningsby Gallery in Soho and then went on to be exhibited in Oslo and then in our Ludlow space.

Heretic is a London based illustration, design and screen printing studio comprising of Luke Frost, Jon Rundall and Therese Vandling. Heretic studio work on wide ranging projects from art-prints and gig-posters, to record covers and 3-D sound installations. Exploring themes such as inner and outer visions, strange mysticism, tomorrow’s symbolism and vague emotions, Heretic’s work primarily involves juxtaposing and blending elements of collage and drawing, using screen printing as much for it’s visual as for its reproductive qualities.





Gail Brodholt is a leading linocut printmaker of contemporary urban landscapes. Using a subtle but rich palette, she displays an expert eye for composition, draughtsmanship and colour.

 Her work is concerned with journeys, both actual and temporal, providing an outsiders narrative on present day London which is tinged with a certain nostalgia for the railways and tube trains.

 Gails work has a technical, draughtsman-like quality, yet underneath there is always a strong element of emotion.She depicts London and especially its transport network with great technical accomplishment, pushing the boundaries that the medium is usually thought suitable for. She strives to achieve atmospheric effects, relating such things as weather, time of day and seasons, by applying the inks in a painterly way with glazes, impasto, etc. Her ever-present themes are the interplay between London's trains and tubes with the housing they connect.


Graphic artist, print-maker and designer Anthony Burrill is known for his persuasive, up-beat style of communication. His work is held in the permanent collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum, New York and has been exhibited in galleries around the world including The Barbican.

Words and language are an important part of Burrill’s output and he has developed a distinctive voice that is sought after not only by collectors of his posters and prints 

official wedsite


The idea to use toxic waste instead of printing ink to draw peoples attention to the problem of water pollution with oil is very powerful. He collected oil from the water surface. He literally separated it from water. This poster was very literal and straightforward message that catch peoples attention. 

Also, I like how he uses a very simple graphic language to deliver important messages. The font and colours that he used for the poster «work hard and be nice to people»  were very simple and minimalistic. That phrase is a very simple formula to be happy, something that everyone can do.  Antonio made an accent on this simplicity with graphic language that  he used.



Anthony Burrill



is a form of relief printing. A design is carved into a piece of lino (linoleum). This is inked with a brayer (though you can use a brush, it's harder to get the ink even), and a print made by placing a sheet of paper on top so the ink is transferred to the paper. Pressure is applied to get an even transfer of the ink by either running the linocut block and paper through a printing

press or using a burnisher (often simply the back of a spoon).


plastic bag printmaking

by Alisa Burke


This technique has evolved from mono printing. You use a pice of plastic to print with. Then you can ink the whole piece and draw on top.There are all kinds of ways to get expressive on the surface-  you can scratch into the paint with a toothpick, old paint brush or the end of a pencil. You can pull paint away (subtractive method) with a cotton swap or a rag. You can even add paint and brush strokes to the surface.Once you are satisfied its time to print by simply placing the plastic onto your surface. You should roll the brayer over it a couple of times and peel the plastic away from the surface.



Piero Manzoni 1961

In May 1961, while he was living in Milan, Piero Manzoni produced ninety cans of Artist's Shit. Each was numbered on the lid 001 to 090. Tate's work is number 004. A label on each can, printed in Italian, English, French and German, identified the contents as '"Artist's Shit", contents 30gr net freshly preserved, produced and tinned in May 1961.' In December 1961 Manzoni wrote in a letter to the artist Ben Vautier: 'I should like all artists to sell their fingerprints, or else stage competitions to see who can draw the longest line or sell their shit in tins. The fingerprint is the only sign of the personality that can be accepted: if collectors want something intimate, really personal to the artist, there's the artist's own shit, that is really his.' (Letter reprinted in Battino and Palazzoli p.144.)

Danish Design Centre 

We created Flowmarket because we want to contribute to a positive world development. Flowmarket was made to materialise our more intangible and quieter needs in a world where we are more or less constantly bombarded with agendas, new material needs and commercial sales from our surroundings. We wish to inspire people to reflect upon their true needs and remind themselves of what truly matters to them in their life - and spend their energy, time and means on that. Daily focus reminders & soul-nourishment We believe that people´s focus significantly affects their choices and actions and hence their daily life and surroundings. Our products are designed to serve as small positive reminders at home or at work. As daily inspirations and reminders for its owners and their surroundings about their choice of focus and energy spend in their everyday life. Some people refer to our products as nourishment for the soul.

Danish Design Centre


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