A sleeping bag is a protective "bag" for a person to sleep in, essentially a blanket that can be closed with a zipperor similar means, and functions as a bed in situations where a bed is unavailable (e.g. when camping, hiking, hill walking or climbing). Its primary purpose is to provide warmth and thermal insulation. It also protects, to some extent, against wind chill, precipitation, and exposure to view, but a tent performs those functions better. The bottom surface also provides some cushioning, but a sleeping pad is usually used in addition for that purpose. A bivouac sack (bivy) is a waterproof cover for a sleeping bag that may be used in place of a tent for lightweight travelers or as a backup if inclement weather occurs.
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